Various Treatments for the Mentally Ill in the Renaissance:
- Converting humors into vapors following the idea of balancing the amount of black bile in a person (de Chavez, 2009)
- Confinement (Dickinson, 1990)
- Special diets (Grob, 1985)
- Interpretation of dreams (Mora, 1992)
- Incubation in holy temples (Mora, 1992)
- Pastoral counseling (Mora, 1992)
- Bodily punishments and harm (de Chavez, 2009)
- Physical tortures, such as cold baths (de Chavez, 2009; Dickinson, 1990; Grob, 1985)
- Instilling terror and horror, such as holding one’s head under the water until they came close to drowning in order to suffocate their crazy ideas (de Chavez, 2009)
- Exhaustion through various tasks such as placing them on rotating machines and wheels (de Chavez, 2009; Dickinson, 1990)
- Use of Tranquillisers: A chair that was used to physically restrain a patient to the point of chaining their limbs and placing a hood over their heads in order to prevent movement (Dickinson, 1990)
- Facial masks in order to silence them (de Chavez, 2009)
- Electric Shocks (de Chavez, 2009; Dickinson, 1990)
- Blood transfusions with animals in order to renew the humors (de Chavez, 2009)
- Rubbing the body with rough ointments (de Chavez, 2009)
- Incisions in the head to allow the evil spirit to escape (de Chavez, 2009)
- Immobilizing devices (Dickinson, 1990)
- Use of narcotics: Opium, Laudanum and Morphia (sleeping), laxatives, saline (emetics), various tonics (Dickinson, 1990; Grob, 1985).
de Chavez, M. G. (2009). Treatment of psychoses before the twentieth century. In Y. O. Alanen, G. dC. Manual, A. S. Silber, & B. Martindale (Eds.) Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Schizophrenia Psychoses: Past, Present, and Future, (pp. 10-22). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.
Dickinson, E. (1990). From madness to mental health: A brief history of psychiatric treatments in the UK from 1800 to the present. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 419-424.
Grob, G. N. (1985). The transformation of the mental hospital in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, 28, 639-654.
Mora, G. (1992). Stigma during the medieval and Renaissance periods. In P. J. Fink & A. Tasman (Eds.) Stigma and mental illness, (pp. 41-57). Washington, D.C., US: American Psychiatric Association.
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